In order to cooperate with the prevention and control of the epidemic, in addition to masks, another essential thing for people to travel today is the health code on their mobile phones, especially for people who need to travel in different places. Whenever you go, you often have to use various methods, download APP, or scan the code through WeChat Alipay to log in to different health codes everywhere. Therefore, at the gates of airports, train stations, and office buildings, there is always a small group of people stranded. While showing a hurry, they have to be patient, holding their mobile phone to scan the code, take off the mask and brush their face, fill in information, and wait. System verification.
People who enter Beijing also need to manually fill in the specific itinerary trajectory to the districts and counties within 14 days, and they can pass through after matching the big data in the background. Omitting the “Beijing” option, unfamiliar information about foreign regions and counties, forgetting to stay in a certain place for a short time, etc., it is difficult for the health code in your hand to become a passable green code.
Under a lot of troubles, people are generally confused about a question: Why do you want to fill in the code manually? Why can’t we have one yard across the country?
Different local standards
The healthy codebook is the product of flowering all over the country. On February 11, to meet the needs of epidemic prevention and control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province took the lead in launching a health code. Subsequently, the health code plan was quickly adopted by other provinces and cities. In addition to the provincial health codes, more cities have also developed their own health codes, such as Guangzhou Suikang Code, Shenzhen Shenyiyou, Nanjing Ningguilai and so on. For a time, various health codes emerge in endlessly. There are often both provincial health codes and health codes for multiple cities in a province.
As a result of the separate development of health codes in various regions, the original health code generation standards were not uniform, mainly including behavior trajectory, big data analysis and manual declaration.
An unnamed technical expert told the Caijing reporter that the health code technology based on behavior trajectory is very simple. The CDR data (Call Detail Records) of individual users mastered by the three major operators can be used for geographic positioning. After these data are matched with the risk value of the city or district, a simple health code system is completed.
However, it is prone to errors in determining the health status according to the behavior trajectory. Transwarp provides the underlying technical support for the Shanghai Suishen code system. Its co-founder and R&D director Liu Wanggen told the reporter of Caijing that the health code involves a lot of information such as positioning and trajectory, but each piece of information needs to be cross-validated. . For example, the signal base station has poor feedback, and the behavior trajectory is prone to drift, resulting in inaccurate data. In such cases, other technical means are required to correct.
Shanghai’s initial plan was to provide core data by the Health Commission. The Shanghai Big Data Center collected a large amount of data, including civil aviation, high-speed rail, highways, hospitals, and operators. After the data was collected on a big data platform, it was compared with local conditions. After data aggregation, collision and concatenation, after complex rule calculation, the risk level of each person is obtained. For example, confirmed cases are marked as red codes, people who have been in close contact with the confirmed cases are marked as yellow codes, and unrelated cases are marked as green codes. “The government will optimize the rules of specific red, yellow and green codes in real time. During peak periods, the rules will be adjusted every day according to the situation of the day.” Liu Wanggen said.
If the health code is implemented in the above two ways, it will not be difficult to promote the health code nationwide from a technical perspective, but it will only increase the amount of data processed. However, in some provinces and cities with a low level of digitization, residents can determine the color of the health code after they declare their body temperature and past travel routes, and the declaration status cannot be connected with the health data in real time. This relatively crude form of data collection is difficult to get through with the first two.
On March 7 this year, Yang Wenzhuang, director of the Population and Family Department of the National Health Commission, explained that the environment and conditions for one-yard traffic are not yet mature. Different health code generation standards, different risk levels, response levels, and prevention and control requirements in different provinces are all practical difficulties in the nationalization of health codes at that time.
However, in April this year, the State Administration for Market Regulation (Standards Committee) issued the “Personal Health Information Code” series of national standards, which stipulated the composition and display form of the health code, the data structure of personal health information, etc., thus realizing the health code symbology , Unification of display mode and data content. From project establishment to release, this series of standards only took 14 days. To a certain extent, this has realized the unification of health code standards in various regions.
After the unification of the standard, the health code of the provincial platform gradually began to connect to the query interface of the national platform. In theory, it is also expected to realize the “one code access” across the country, but the actual situation is not so ideal.
Has a “national code” long ago?
In fact, as early as February 29, in order to promote the mutual recognition of health codes in various regions, the national government service platform launched the “anti-epidemic health information code” (commonly known as the “national code”). The national code and the local code can be used for personal inquiry of epidemic prevention information. The difference is that the early national code has no red or green code, and only provides the words “no abnormality” or travel tips.
Photo/Xinhua News Agency
Because it was not yet fully connected with all regions at the time, the main purpose of the national code was to provide data support and service foundations for the health codes of all regions, including a unified database of confirmed diagnoses and suspected cases, and county risk level databases, but it was not widely used as a proof of operation.
At that time, the national code proposed three forms of mutual recognition of health codes: one is to increase the cross-regional mutual recognition function in the local health code through data sharing without changing the existing local health code; The national anti-epidemic information code is docked, and the “national code” is used as an intermediary for conversion to realize mutual recognition; third, the “national code” can be directly adopted in areas without local health codes.
On the basis of the national code, provinces and cities can combine self-health assessment and regional supplementary data submitted by residents online to accurately manage the population with different risk score results.
People who have used Beijing Healthbao to travel in and out of Beijing have had this experience. When inquiring about their health status, a pop-up window will appear, asking to fill in the itinerary of the past 14 days and verify with the background data. The background data used for matching comes from the national platform “National Code”.
In July of this year, Liu Xu, director of the Big Data Construction Division of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Economy and Information Technology, said in an interview with the Science and Education Channel of Beijing TV Station that because Beijing Healthbao does not collect user locations, it is impossible to know whether users pass through high-risk areas after leaving Beijing. Therefore, users are required to fill in information and verify with the national platform.
However, this manual process of filling in the itinerary still troubles many users, but the national code has been launched for more than half a year, and the public awareness of this “national code” is not high.
Hu Gongqun, a legislative consultant from the Standing Committee of the Beijing Municipal People’s Congress and a lawyer at the Bank of China Law Firm in Beijing, told Caijing that people who have no abnormalities in the national code do not need to apply for the local health code repeatedly, but the objective reality is that different places still have their own health codes. Code, the code at the national level has not been able to completely replace the local health code.
Action decision and data barriers
The health code is difficult to be unified across the country. “This is not a technical problem, but a decision on the commercial level.” The above-mentioned technical expert said. The health code was originally developed by various localities, and technology companies such as Alibaba, Tencent, Zhongke Brain, and Transwarp Technology have participated in the development of the health code.
This technical expert believes that, of course, a single company can provide services at the national level. However, if a red code or a yellow code is found, it still needs to coordinate with the local epidemic prevention department and other relevant functional departments to act quickly. This will also involve the local The information gets through. Liu Wanggen also said that the specific action level involves the government’s grid management, including personnel and material deployment, centralized or home isolation, and limited distribution of masks at the beginning of the epidemic, all of which are under unified management by local communities.
“Since it is ultimately a localized action, at the very beginning, I will also think of doing it locally. The simplest and most effective way is to allocate funds from the government according to administrative divisions and invite local companies to develop them.” He said.
As for the subsequent unification of the health code nationwide, it will take extra money and time, and it has not added much value in the anti-epidemic level. “Although this solution is not optimal, it can already solve the problem. ”
In addition to decision-making considerations, data barriers and information islands between various departments are also one of the key factors that make it difficult for the health code to be unified nationwide.
First of all, the competent units of health codes across the country are quite different and belong to different systems. Beijing Healthbao is in charge of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Economics and Information Technology, Shanghai Suishen Code is in charge of the Shanghai Big Data Center, Shandong Health Code is in charge of the Provincial Health Commission, and Liaoning Liaoshitong is managed by the Liaoning Business Environment Construction Bureau. He Provincial Information Center is responsible.
Judging from the information published by the national code, the data that needs to be collected comes from health, industry and information, transportation, customs, immigration management, civil aviation, railways and other departments, which requires a large number of local units to cooperate and coordinate. If you want to get through the data between provinces, cities, and departments across the country, the difficulty will increase geometrically.
At the two sessions this year, NPC deputy Shi Rong and CPPCC member Zhu Dingzhen both mentioned the existing data barriers. Various types of data are scattered within departments at all levels of provinces, cities, and counties. However, due to different standards and interfaces, aggregation effects have not yet formed, which has hindered the application of data across departments, industries, and regions.
The same situation also occurs on the health code. In Hu Gongqun’s view, the current lack of a unified health code nationwide is due to the lack of a unified data sharing mechanism and platform. From the perspective of administrative management, this is also a manifestation of local governance.
Hu Gongqun believes that the key to health code management should be “mobile individuals” as the object, with “data flow” as the logic, clarify the responsible parties for data collection, use, sharing, publication, and deletion, so as to achieve resource sharing and cross-cutting. World integration.